Indicative Brass Band Bibliography


Indicative Brass Band Bibliography

Dr Stephen Etheridge: Follow me on Twitter @DrGtrombone

The blogs I have written about brass bands, and other subjects, on this site have been driven by an interdisciplinary approach to research. The approach taken bridges a gap between musicology and social history. It is worthwhile examining this approach and listing some of the canon of work that deals with the research surrounding brass bands as the interdisciplinary nature of this approach only began to reach fruition in the 1990s. Moreover, as Patrick Joyce has argued elsewhere, the industrial areas surrounding Manchester, and the city itself, are a region that historians have studied to understand the nature of class that emerged from industrialisation. (Joyce, P. Work, Society and Politics: The Culture of the Factory in Later Victorian England (Brighton, 1980, this edition, London, 1982) As such the concentration of brass bands and other musical groups in the region are not just an expression of music-making but they become the agency to explore the social networks that emerge as a result of increased leisure time. Recently this has given musicology and social history a distinctly Northern hue. As musicologists and social historians the more we move away from the printed score and the accepted narratives of class the more the waters become muddied, yet this is where we can find some good fishing.

The Background

In 1979 William Weber saw that musicologists and social historians had similar interests. Yet he still saw musicologists as scholars who tried to find meaning in musical scores, and social historians as researchers who tried to find historical significance in social groups. The link between music and the development of social networks had not yet been fully formed. Weber wrote:

I see strong similarities between recent interests of musicologists and the search among social historians for a clearer historical vocabulary. Just as musicologists are trying to arrive at a more accurate sense of how scores used to be played, so social historians are struggling to define what social groups meant to people in the past. Even if unanimity is in short supply in both fields, we all respect the past and ask that it be heard and seen in its own terms.[1]

Dave Russell made a call to study music to understand social history, together with the need to embrace an interdisciplinary approach, in his 1993 article, ‘The “Social History” of Popular Music: A Label Without a Cause?’[2] Major inroads into exploring music as an interdisciplinary study were made by the ‘Music and Cultures Research Group’ in the Open University’s Music Department, consisting of Trevor Herbert, Martin Clayton and Richard Middleton. The group’s stated purpose was to ‘pursue research in the cultural study of music, with an emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches drawing on musicology, social history, anthropology, ethnomusicology, cultural theory and other relevant areas.’[3] The key text that resulted from this group was a collection of essays covering many aspects of the conjunction between music and culture.[4]

Significant research also emerged from the conferences of The Royal Musical Association’s Biennial Conferences on Music in Nineteenth-Century Britain, from 1997 onwards. These conferences have been crucial gathering points for scholars from a wide range of disciplines including musicology, cultural social and economic history, politics, sociology and cultural geography.[6] Significantly the work has been enriched by interdisciplinary dialogue.[7] Critically, as Rachel Cowgill maintains, these conferences ‘have long since squashed the notion that musicologists are not interested in the broad contextualization of music and its significance as a cultural practice.’[9] This evolution and acceptance of social history within the discipline of musicology was recently expressed in 2012 at the Centre for the Study of Music, Gender and Identity (MuGI), based at the University of Huddersfield, who argue they are ‘unique within the research context of music as a discipline in our exploration of the relationship between music, gender and identity in diverse cultural and chronological contexts.’

Musicology, then, has become social history, or, is it the other way around?

[1] William Weber, ‘The Muddle of the Middle Classes’, 19th-Century Music, Vol. 3, No. 2 (November, 1979), p. 185.

[2] Popular Music, 12/2 (May 1993), pp. 139-155.

[3] <> accessed, 6 October, 2011

[4] Martin Clayton, Trevor Herbert and Richard Middleton (Eds.), The Cultural Study of Music: A Critical Introduction (New York, 2003), <> accessed, 6 October, 2011.

[5] Martin Clayton, Trevor Herbert and Richard Middleton (Eds.), The Cultural Study of Music, p. 1.

[6] <http:/> accessed, 15 May, 2013.

[7] See, for example, Bennett Zon (Ed.), Nineteenth-Century British Music Studies Volume 1(Aldershot, 1997); Jeremy Dibble (Ed.), Nineteenth-Century Music Studies Volume 2 (Aldershot, 2002); Peter Horton and Bennett Zon (Eds.), Nineteenth-Century Music Studies Volume 3 (Aldershot, 2003); Rachael Cowgill and Julian Ruston (Eds.), Europe, Empire and Spectacle in Nineteenth-Century British Music (Aldershot,2006) and Paul Rodmell (Ed.), Music and Institutions in Nineteenth-Century Britain (Farnham, 2012).

[8] <http:/>

[9] See the previous website.

[10] <> accessed, 2 January, 2014.

 The Bibliography

Anderson, B, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London, 1991)

Aspin, C. The First Industrial Society, Lancashire, 1750-1850 (Preston, 1995)

Baignet, E. ‘Haweis, Hugh Reginald (1838-1901)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, (Oxford, 2004), <;

Bainbridge, C. Brass Triumphant (London, 1980)

Baines, A. Brass Instruments (London, 1976, this edition, London, 1980)

Bamford, S. Walks in South Lancashire, On its Borders with Letters, Descriptions Narratives and Observations, Current and Incidental (Manchester, 1844) (RLS)

Bailey, P. Leisure and Class in Victorian England, Rational Recreation and the Contest for Control, 1830-1885 (London, 1978)

Bailey, P. Popular Culture and Performance in the Victorian City (Cambridge, 1998)

Bailey, P. ‘Ally Sloper’s Half-Holiday: Comic Art in the 1880s’, History Workshop, 16 (1993), pp. 4-31

Bailey, P. ‘”Will the Real Bill Banks Please Stand Up?” Towards a Role Analysis of Mid-Victorian Working-Class Respectability’, Journal of Social History, Vol. No. 3 (1979), pp. 336-353

Baines , A. C. and Myers, A. The Cornet, Grove Music Online (Oxford University Press) < >

Bashford, C. and Langley L. (Eds.), Music and British Culture, 1785-1914: Essays in Honour of Cyrill Ehlrich (Oxford and New York, 2000)

Bate, P, Herbert, T and Myers A, ‘Saxhorn.’ Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online (Oxford University Press) <;

Beaven, B. Leisure, Citizenship and Working-Class Men in Britain, 1850-1945 (Manchester, 2004)


Bebbington, B. W. Evangelicalism in Modern Britain: A History from the 1730s to the 1980s (Oxon, 1989, this edition, 2002)

Benas, B. B. ‘Merseyside Orchestras: An Introduction to the History of Local Instrumental Music’, Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, 95 (1945), pp. 95-117 (BBA)

Benson, J. The Working Class in Britain, 1850-1939 (London and New York, 1989)

Bennett, Z. (Ed.), Nineteenth-Century British Music Studies, Vol. 1 (Aldershot, 1999)

Bevan, C. ‘Brass Band Contests: Art or Sport?’ in, Herbert, T. (Ed.), Bands: The Brass Band Movement in the 19th and 20th Centuries (Oxford, 1991), pp. 102-119

Boon, B. Play the Music, Play! The Story of Salvation Army Bands (St Albans, 1966)

Bourdieu, P. translated by Nice R., Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste (Paris, 1979, this edition, London, 1994)

Bourke, J. Working-Class Cultures in Britain, Gender, Ethnicity and Class (London, 1994)

Borsay, P. A History of Leisure: The British Experience Since 1500 (Basingstoke, 2006)

Bradley, I. ‘Blowing for the Lord: the Salvation Army’, History Today, Vol 27. No 3 (1977) pp. 190-195

Brierley, B. Home Memories and Recollections (Manchester, 1862) (RLS)

Briggs, A. ‘Issues in Northern History’, Northern History, 1 (1966), pp. 1-6

Brown, L. Victorian News and Newspapers (Oxford, 1985)

Bowden, K. F. (Ed.), A Bacup Miscellany (Bacup, 1972)

Brand, V. and Brand, G. Brass Bands in the 20th Century (Letchworth, 1979)

Burke, P. History and Social Theory (Cambridge University Press, 1992)

Bythell, D. ‘The Brass Band in the Antipodes: The Transplantation of British Popular Culture’, in, Herbert, T. (Ed.), The British Brass Band: A Musical and Social History (Oxford, 2000), pp. 217-244

Carter, T. ‘The Sound of Silence: Models for an Urban Musicology’, Urban History, 29/1 (2002), pp. 8-18

Childs, M. J. Labour’s Apprentices: Working-Class Lads in Late Victorian and Edwardian England (Belfast, 1992)

Clark, A. The Struggle for the Breeches, Gender and the Making of the British Working Class (London, 1995)

Clark, D. B. ‘The Concept of Community: A Re- Examination’, Sociological Review, Volume 21 (1973), pp. 397-416

Clay, J. H. Black Dyke, An Inside Story (Stockport, 2005) (BLS)

Clayton, M. Herbert, T. and Middleton, R. (Eds.), The Cultural Study of Music: A Critical Introduction (New York, 2003)

Colley, L. Britons: Forging the Nation, 1707-1837 (New Haven: London, 2005)

Cook, C. The Routledge Companion to Britain in the Nineteenth Century, 18151914 (Abingdon, 2005)

Cooper, T. L. Brass Bands of Yorkshire, (Clapham, Yorks, 1974)

Corbridge, S. L. It’s An Old Lancashire Custom (Preston, 1952, this edition, 1964)

Cornes M. The Industrial Triangle: Work and Society in the Towns of Heywood, Middleton and Rochdale, 1840-1870 (PhD thesis, University of Huddersfield, 2000)

Cowgill, R. and Holman, P. (Eds.), Music in the British Provinces, 1690-1914 (Aldershot, 2007)

Cowgill, R. ‘Disputing Choruses in 1760s Halifax: Jonah Bates, William Herschell and the “Messiah” Club’, in, Cowgill, R. and Holman, P. (Eds.), Music in the British Provinces, 1690-1914 (Aldershot, 2007), pp. 87-114

Cowgill, R. ‘The Business of Music in late Georgian and Victorian Halifax, c. 1760-1901, Transactions of the Halifax Antiquarian Society, 10 (2002), pp. 77-95 (HXLS)

Cowgill, R. ‘”The Most Musical Spot for its Size in the Kingdom”: Music in Georgian Halifax’, Early Music, 28 (2000), pp. 557-575

Crow, G. and Graham, A. Community Life An Introduction to Local Social Relations (Hemel Hempstead, 1994)

Crystal, D. The Stories of English (London, 2004)

Cudworth, W. Music in Bradford (Bradford, 1885) (BRLS)

Cunningham, H. Leisure in the Industrial Revolution (London, 1980)

Cunningham, H. ‘The Metropolitan Fairs: A Case Study in the Social Control of Leisure’, in, Donajgrodzki, A. P. (Ed.), Social Control in Nineteenth-Century Britain (London, 1977), pp. 163-184

Dale, C. ‘The Provincial Music Festival in Nineteenth-Century England: A Case Study of Bridlington’, in, Cowgill, R. and Holman, P. (Eds.), Music in the British Provinces, 1690-1914 (Aldershot, 2007), pp. 325-348

Davies, A. Leisure, Gender and Poverty: Working-Class Culture in Salford and Manchester, 1900-1939 (Buckingham, 1992)

D’Cruz, S. ‘Sex, Violence and Local Courts: Working-Class Respectability in a Mid-Victorian Lancashire Town’, British Journal of Criminology 39/1 (Special Edition, 1999), pp. 47-49

Dearnley, C. English Church Music, 1650-1750: In Royal Chapel, Cathedral and Parish Church (London, 1970)

Dellheim, C. ‘Imagining England: Victorian Views of the North’, Northern History, XXII (1986), pp. 126-130

Dentith, S. Society and Cultural Forms in Nineteenth-Century England (Basingstoke, 1998)

Donajgrodzki, A. P. (Ed.), Social Control in Nineteenth-Century Britain (London, 1977)

Drage, S. ‘The Larks of Dean: Amateur Musicians in the North of England’, in, Cowgill, R. and Holman, P. (Eds.), Music in the British Provinces, 1690-1914 (Aldershot, 2007), pp. 195-222

Durrell, L. The Spirit of Place (New York, 1969)

Edwards J. Ordinary People: A Study of Factors Affecting Communication in the Provision of Services. (PhD Thesis, University of Manchester, 1990)

Ehrlich, C. The Music Profession in Britain Since the Eighteenth Century: A Social History (Oxford, 1985)

Ehlrich, C. The Piano: A Social History (London and Dent, 1976)

Ehrlich, C. and Russell, D. ‘Victorian Music: A Perspective’, Journal of Victorian Culture, Vol. 13 (1998), pp. 111-122

Elbourne, R. P. Music and Tradition in Early Industrial Lancashire (Woodbridge, 1980)

Elbourne, R. P. ‘”Singing Away to the Click of the Shuttle”: Musical Life in the Handloom Weaving Communities of Lancashire’, Local Historian, 12 (1976), pp. 13-17

Engel, C. An Introduction to the Study of National Music, Comprising Researches into Popular Songs, Traditions and Customs (London, 1866) Farr, R. The Distin Family Legacy: The Rise of the Brass Band in 19th Century Britain (Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, 2013)

Finnegan, R. The Hidden Musicians: Music-Making in An English Town (Cambridge, 1989)

Fitzgerald, R. ‘Rowntree, Joseph (1836–1925)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 <;, accessed, 22 January, 2013

Flanders, J. Consuming Passions: Leisure and Pleasure in Victorian Britain (London, 2006)

Forbes, R. ‘A Study in Music, Community and Identity in a Late NineteenthCentury Victorian Town, Journal of Victorian Culture Volume 11. Number 2 (2006), pp. 256-280

Francis, M. “The Domestication of the Male? Recent Research on Nineteenth – and Twentieth-Century British Masculinity”, The Historical Journal, 45/3 (2002), pp. 637-652

Galloway, W. M. Musical England (New York, 1910)

Gammon, V. and Gammon, S. ‘The Musical Revolution of the Mid-Nineteenth Century: From ‘Repeat and Twiddle’ to ‘Precision and Snap’’, in, Herbert, T. (Ed.), The British Brass Band: A Musical and Social History (Oxford, 2000), pp.122-154

Gilbert, D. ‘Imagined Communities and Mining Communities’, Labour History Review, vol.60, no.2 (1995), pp. 47-55

Gilmore, D. D. Manhood in the Making: Cultural Concepts of Masculinity (Yale, 1990)

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Goldby, D. J. Instrumental Teaching in Nineteenth Century Britain (Abingdon, 2004)

Granovetter, M. ‘The Strength of Weak Ties’, American Journal of Sociology, 78/6, pp. 1360-1380.

Gunn, S. ‘The Sublime and the Vulgar: the Halle Concerts and the Constitution of High Culture in Manchester, c.1850-1880’, The Journal of Victorian Culture, 2/2 (Autumn, 1997), pp. 208-228

Haigh, H. A. (Ed.), Huddersfield: A Most Handsome Town: Aspects of the History and Culture of a West Yorkshire Town (Huddersfield, 1992)

Hailstone, A. The British Bandsman Centenary Book, A Social History of Brass Bands (Baldock, 1987)

Harding, V. ‘Introduction: Music and Urban Identity’, Urban History, Vol. 29. No. 1 (2002), pp. 5-7

Harris, J. Private Lives, Public Spirit: Britain 1870-1914 (Oxford, 1993, this edition, London, 1994)

Harvey, K. and Shepard, A. ‘What Have Historians Done with Masculinity? Reflections on Five Centuries of British History, circa 1500-1950’, Journal of British Studies, Vol 44. No. 2 (2005), pp. 274-280

Haweis, H. R. Music and Morals, (London, 1890, this edition 1917)

Helme, C. What Brass Bands Did For Me (Stroud, 2009)

Herbert, T. (Ed.), Bands: The Brass Band Movement in the 19th and 20th Centuries (Buckingham, 1991)

Herbert, T. (Ed.), The British Brass Band: A Musical and Social History (Oxford, 2000)

Herbert, T. ‘God’s Perfect Minstrels: The Bands of the Salvation Army’, in, Herbert, T. (Ed.), The British Brass Band: A Musical and Social History (Oxford, 2000), pp. 187-216

Herbert, T. ‘Nineteenth-Century Bands: Making a Movement’, in, Herbert, T. (Ed.), The British Brass Band: A Musical and Social History (Oxford, 2000), pp.10-67

Herbert, T. and Barlow, H. ‘The British Military as a Musical Institution’ in Paul Rodmell (Ed.), Music in Nineteenth-Century Britain: Music and Institutions in Nineteenth-Century Britain (Abingdon, 2012), pp. 247-265.

Herbert, T. and Wallace, J. ‘Aspects of Performance Practices: The Brass Band and Its Influence on Other Brass-Playing Styles’, in, Trevor Herbert (Ed.), The British Brass Band: A Musical and Social History (Oxford, 2000), pp. 278-305.

Herbert, T. ‘The Practice and Context of a Victorian Brass Band’, in Bennett, Z. (Ed.), Nineteenth-Century British Music Studies, Vol. 1 ( Aldershot,1999), pp. 105-18

Herbert, T. ‘Victorian Brass Bands: Class, Taste and Space’ in Reynolds G. et al (Eds.), The Place of Music: Music, Space and the Production of Place, (New York and London, 1998), pp. 104-128

Herbert, T. Gladney, John (1838-1911) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004), <>

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Herbert, T. ‘The Repertory of a Victorian Provincial Brass Band’, Popular Music, Vol. 9, No. 1(1990), pp. 117-132

Herbert, T. ‘Selling Brass Instruments: The Commercial Imaging of Brass Instruments (1830-1930) and its Cultural Messages’, in Music in Art: the International Journal for Music Iconography, 28/1-2 (Spring-Fall 2004), pp. 21326

Herbert, T. ‘Victorian Brass Bands: The Establishment of a Working Class Musical Tradition’, Historic Brass Society Journal No 4 (New York, 1992), pp. 111

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Herbert, T. with Myers, A. ‘Music for the Multitude: Accounts of the Brass Bands Entering Enderby Jackson’s Crystal Palace Contests in the 1860s’, Early Music, Vol. 38, No. 4, (November 2010), pp. 571-584

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Russell, A. ‘Local Elites and the Working-Class Response in the North-West, 1870–1895: Paternalism and Deference Reconsidered’, Northern History, Vol. 23. No.1 (January, 1987), pp. 153-173 Russell, D. Looking North: Northern England and the National Imagination (Manchester, 2000)

Russell, D. Popular Music in England 1840-1914: A Social History (Manchester, 1987, this edition 1991)

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Russell, D. “Music in Huddersfield, c.1820–1914”, in Haigh, H. A. (Ed.), Huddersfield: A Most Handsome Town: Aspects of the History and Culture of a West Yorkshire Town (Huddersfield, 1992)

Russell, D. ‘Music and Northern Identity, 1890-1965’, in, Kirk, N. (Ed.), Northern Identities, Historical Interpretations of ‘The North’ and ‘Northernness’ (Aldershot, 2000), pp. 23-46

Russell, D. ‘Musicians in the English Provincial City, Manchester c. 1860-1914’, in, Bashford C. and Langley L. (Eds.), Music and British Culture, 1785-1914: Essays in Honour of Cyrill Ehlrich (Oxford and New York, 2000), pp. 235-534

Russell, D.‘Popular Entertainments’, in Donohue, J. The Cambridge History of British Theatre, Volume 2, 1660-1895 (Cambridge, 2004), pp. 369-187

Russell, D.’ What’s Wrong with Brass Bands?’ Cultural Change and the Band Movement’, in, Herbert, T. (Ed.), The British Brass Band: A Musical and Social History (Oxford, 2000), pp. 68-121

Russell, D. Owen, Alexander (1851-1920), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, (Oxford, 2004), <;

Russell, D. ‘The Leeds Rational Recreation Society, 1852-9: “Music for the People” in a Mid-Victorian City’, The Thoresby Miscellany, 17 (Leeds, 1981), pp.137-158 Russell, D. ‘Provincial concerts in England, 1865-1914: A Case Study of Bradford’, Journal of the Royal Musical Association, 114/1 (1989), pp. 43-55.

Russell, D. ‘The ‘Social History’ of Popular Music: A Label Without a Cause?’ Popular Music, Vol.12. No. 2 (May 1993), pp.139-154

Russell, D. ‘Sport and Identity: ‘The Case of Yorkshire County Cricket Club, 1830-1939’, 20th Century British History, 7 (1996), pp. 206-230

Russell, D. The Popular Music Societies of the Yorkshire Textile District, 18501914: A Study of the Relationships between Music and Society (PhD Thesis, University of York, 1979)

Russell, J. F. and Elliot, J. H. The Brass Band Movement (London, 1936)

Sanderson, M. ‘Social Change and Elementary Education in Industrial Lancashire, 1780-1840’, Northern History, 3 (1968), pp. 130-154.

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Scott, J. L. The Evolution of the Brass Band and its Repertoire in Northern England (PhD Thesis, University of Sheffield, 1970)

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Smith, A. An Improbable Centenary: The Life and Times of The Slaithwaite Philharmonic Orchestra, 1891-1900 (Huddersfield, 1990) (HLS)

Smith, J. S. A Musical Pilgrimage in Yorkshire (Leeds, 1928) (LLS)

Snell, K. D. M. The Sunday-School Movement in England and Wales: Child Labour, Denominational Control and Working-Class Culture’, Past & Present, No. 164 (August, 1999), pp. 122-168

Solie, R. R. ‘No ‘Land Without Music’ After all’, Victorian Literature and Culture, 32/1 (March, 2004), pp. 261-276.

Spence, P. ‘Bamford Samuel (1788-1882)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford), 2004, online edition (2009), <>

Springhall, J. ‘Building Character in the British Boy: The Attempt to Extend Christian Manliness to Working-Class Adolescents, 1880-1914’ in, Mangan, J. A. and Walvin, J. (Eds.), Manliness and Morality, Middle-Class Masculinity in Britain and America, 1800-1940 (Manchester, 1987), pp. 52-74

Steadman-Jones, G. Languages of Class: Studies in English Working-Class History, 1832-1982 (Cambridge, 1983)

Steadman-Jones, G. ‘Class Expression Versus Social Control? A Critique of Recent Trends in the Social History of ‘Leisure’’, History Workshop Journal , 4/1 (1977), pp. 162-170

Stebbins, R. A. ‘Music Among Friends: The Social Networks of Amateur Musicians’, International Review of Sociology (Series II, April-August, 1976), pp. 52-73

Stokes, M. (Ed.,) Ethnicity and Identity: The Musical Construction of Place (Oxford, 1994)

Storch, R. D.‘The Problem of Working-Class Leisure. Some Roots of MiddleClass Moral Reform in the Industrial North’, in, Donajgrodzki, A. P. (Ed.), Social Control in Nineteenth-Century Britain (London, 1977), pp. 138-165

Sykes, D. F. E. The History of the Colne Valley (Slaithwaite, 1906) (HLS)

Sykes, R.A. ‘Some Aspects of Working-Class Consciousness in Oldham, 18301842’, The Historical Journal, Vol 23. No1. (March, 1980), pp. 167-179.

Taruskin, R. ‘The Symphony Goes (Inter)National’, The Oxford History of Western Music (Online Edition) < -978019538433-div1-014009.xml>

Taylor, A. R. Brass Bands (St Albans and London, 1979)

Taylor, A. R. Labour and Love, An Oral History of the Brass Band Movement

(London, 1983)

Thompson, D. T. Nonconformity in the Nineteenth Century (London, 1972)

Thompson, E. P. Customs in Common, (first published, London, 1991, this edition, 1993)

Thompson, E. P. The Making of the English Working Class (London, 1963, this edition, 1991)

Thompson, E. P. ‘History from Below’, Times Literary Supplement (7 April, 1966), pp. 279-80.

Thompson, E. P. ‘The Moral Economy of the Crowd in the Eighteenth Century’, Past and Present, 50 (February, 1971), pp. 76-136

Thompson, E. P. ‘Time, Work-Discipline, and Industrial Capitalism’, Past & Present, 38 (1967), pp. 56-197

Thompson, F. M. L. The Rise of Respectable Society: A Social History of Victorian Britain, 1830-1900 (Harvard, 1988)

Thompson, F. M. L. ‘Social Control in Victorian Britain’, The Economic History Review, 34/2 (May, 1981), pp. 189-208

Tosh, J. A Man’s Place: Masculinity and the Middle-Class Home in Victorian England (London and Yale, 1999)

Tosh, J. ‘The Old Adam and the New Man: Emerging Themes in the History of English Masculinities, 1750-1850’ in, Hitchcock T. and Cohen M. (Eds.), English Masculinities, 1660-1800 (London, 1999), pp. 217-238

Tosh, J. ‘Gentlemanly Politeness and Manly Simplicity in Victorian England’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th Series, 12 (2002), pp. 455-472

Tosh, J. ‘Masculinities in an Industrializing Society: Britain, 1800-1914’, Journal of British Studies, 44 (April 2005), pp. 330-342

Turner, G. The North Country (London, 1967)

Vernon, J, Politics and the People, A Study in English Political Culture, c.18151867 (Cambridge, 1993)

Vickers, P. Let’s All Have a Real Good Time: Popular Entertainment in Longridge, 1840-1920 (Preston, 2001) (LRO)

Waites, B. ‘Brass Bands,’ by Arthur Taylor, ‘Popular Music, 1 (1981), pp. 210-211

Wales, K. Northern English: A Social and Cultural History (Cambridge, 2006)

Walker, P. J. Pulling the Devil’s Kingdom Down: The Salvation Army in Victorian Britain (Berkeley, 2001)

Walsh, S. ‘Beatrice Webb and Bacup’, Manchester Region History Review, Vol.3. No. 2 (Autumn/Winter, 1989-90), pp. 9-14

Walton, J and Walvin, B. Leisure in Britain, 1780-1939 (Manchester, 1983)

Ward, P. Britishness Since 1870 (London, 2004)

Waters, C. British Socialists and the Politics of Popular Culture 1884-1914 (Manchester, 1990)

Waters, F. and Berryman, J. A History of the Virtuosi Brass Band of Great Britain (Huddersfield, 2004)

Watkins, S. and Phillips, J. C. ‘Three Choirs Festival’, Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online <>

Weber, W. Music and the Middle Class: The Social Structure of Concert Life in London, Paris and Vienna (London, 1975)

Williams. R. Keywords (London, 1976)

Wrigley, F. Brass Bands, Stalybridge and Me (Manchester, 2000)




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